Nature of Job in Information Technology

There are two main sectors in this field:

Hardware: This includes the physical elements of the computer system and deals with the designing, manufacturing and maintenance of computers. This area also includes the assembling of the manufactured components of the computers.

Software: This includes the set of instructions by which a computer is programmed for working and performing the specified tasks. This realm includes the work of designing the programs for various purposes. Programs may be for controlling the functioning of the computers or they may also be some user-friendly programs for specific needs. The programs may also come in the form of packages, which are designed for meeting the different kinds requirements for large number of people.

Functional areas in Hardware:

  • Manufacturing: This involves the work of production and assembly of components of computer systems.
  • Maintenance: People in maintenance look after the smooth functioning of the machine and help in rectifying and detecting the breakdown in them. They also help in taking preventive measures so that least amount of damage could be caused to the computer systems and peripherals.
  • Research and Development: It involves designing of chips and circuits, computer architecture and integration of peripherals. It also includes improvement and upgrading of the existing systems.
  • Management: Managers ensure that the development and production work goes on smoothly. They look after the allocation of resources and planning.
  • Computer operations: It requires handling of computer peripherals along with other accessories like CD-ROMs, disk drives, printers etc.

Functional areas in Software:

  • Programmers/Coders: They write and test programs and convert the strategies of the system analyst into working programs.
  • Software development: This involves updating and development of existing operations as well as their refining and improvement. All this is carried out in various stages like analysis, designing, construction, implementation etc.
  • Application programmers: They prepare programs either for general purpose or user-friendly programs or some specific programs for individual use along with testing and integrating them.
  • Data entry: The data for the programs, which are made, have to be fed in computers. So this work is done at data entry level.
  • Support services: They vary in nature and can range from helping a customers in the purchase of the software, suggesting its right kind of application and providing them with the required training at the initial stage of its use.
  • Manufacture: This involves preparing the set of instructions or programs to let the computer work. This further needs combining of application of computer science and telecommunications principles and creativity.
  • Database administration: It involves management and maintenance of data.
  • Data center management: It involves management of the dedicated facilities, which houses the critical servers and other networking and backup equipments. Data-centers typically houses those equipment which have to be kept operational 24x7x365.
  • Sales and Marketing: The work here involves selling of the computer system and its marketing to different companies or individuals.
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